Kidney and Ureteral Stones

Kidney stones are small crystallized structures that can form as a result of an imbalance of certain components in urine such as calcium, oxalate and phosphate. They can also be caused as a result of a urinary tract infection or hereditary factors. With more than a million cases diagnosed each year, kidney stones are among the most painful and most common disorder of the urinary system. It is estimated that 10 percent of Americans will acquire them during their lifetime. While many kidney stones pass without the need for medical intervention, when it is needed, Alaska Urology is ready to provide compassionate state-of-the-art care for improved outcomes, enhanced patient comfort and rapid recovery.

Diagnosing Kidney Stones

Routine x-rays taken during physical examinations can discover kidney stones in patients where no symptoms are evident. More frequently, kidney stones are found as a result of a diagnostic imaging examination (abdominal/pelvic CT scan) ordered for patients manifesting symptoms such as blood in the urine and/or sudden and intense back (flank) pain. Additionally, blood and urine tests are used to detect compounds or substances that suggest the presence of kidney stones and conditions that can promote their formation.

Treatment Options

Alaska Urology uses a variety of approaches to treat patients with kidney stones. For more complex stones (such as cystine or staghorn stones) or urologic disease treatment can range from hydration and painkillers to minimally invasive non-surgical and surgical procedures to remove the stones or facilitate their passage through the urinary system. Option may include:

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

This minimally invasive procedure is also used to treat stones in the ureters. Since it does not require an incision, it involves inserting a fiberoptic ureteroscope directly into the opening in the urethra, through the bladder and into the ureter. Through it, a physician can view the stone and pass instruments to remove or fragment it. This is a day surgery procedure that involves anesthesia and placement of a stent in the ureter while healing takes place.

Minimally Invasive Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery (RIRS):

This procedure permits surgery to be performed inside the kidney without making an external incision. It is an outpatient procedure where a viewing tube, called a fiberoptic endoscope, and instruments for performing the surgery are inserted through the opening in the urethra, and moved through the bladder and the ureter and into the kidney. The procedure is for children and patients in general with kidney stones, narrowing of the outlet of the kidney, urethral strictures (scarring) and kidney tumors, as well as patients with bleeding disorders or who are overweight. The procedure involves the use of local, intravenous or general anesthesia.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL):

This minimally invasive surgical procedure is for larger stones located in the ureters where externally administered lithotripsy cannot be used effectively or where the stones cause a blockage that cannot be bypassed by a stent. The ureters are anatomical structures descending from the kidney to the bladder. The procedure involves a small incision in the patient’s flank into which a nephroscope is inserted to locate and physically remove the stone. In certain situations larger stones may be broken into smaller pieces through the use of an energy probe (i.e. ultrasound) inserted through the incision. The entire procedure requires sedation or anesthesia and a short hospital stay.


The comprehensive level of care provided by Alaska Urology includes helping patients manage their disease and prevent recurrence. Once your stone has been treated or has passed spontaneously, we will analyze the stone and to determine why you are making kidney stones. Based on the results, the physicians at Alaska Urology will offer a customized treatment plan that could include simple dietary changes, increasing fluid intake, and medications.